Providing all students with multiple music opportunities has always been a priority at Alfred Music, and the latest publication for strings certainly supports that intention. Co-writers of Latin Philharmonic,, Victor López and Bob Phillips, present with a new concept that is original, comprehensive, flexible, practical, and intended for classroom or studio instruction, as well as performance. Read on to learn more about teaching cha-cha-cha and how to rehearse Latin rhythms!
Latin Philharmonic is a collection of original Latin dance tunes for strings and rhythm section. All pieces are written in the “Philharmonic” format that features flexible instrumentation. This format allows string students to switch between playing the melody, accompaniment/bass line, solos, and the included Latin percussion parts. Each piece has a complete audio track and an accompaniment track for performance or practice. Today, one can hear the influence of Latin music on the radio, commercials, television, movie soundtracks, and other mediums. The titles presented in this publication will provide students the musical experience necessary for understanding the several different Latin styles that have influenced today’s music.
For this article, I have chosen to discuss “Muchacha Cha” from the book and highlight the crucial rhythmic patterns of the piece. The clave rhythm pattern provides the foundation for the Latin music style. This selection is written in a cha-cha-cha style, one of the most popular Latin music styles. It is a medium slow Cuban dance and the pulse is based on quarter notes. Most people are familiar with this pattern. One song that comes to mind, written by Tito Puente and made famous by Jorge Santana, is “Oye Como Va.” In Puente’s original recording, one can hear the basic rhythmic characteristics of the cha-cha-cha style, which basically are the quarter note pulse, the rhythm played by the pianist, and the clave pattern (2/3 Son clave).
There are two major types of clave rhythms in Afro-Cuban music, the son clave and the rumba clave. Usually, the son clave is associated with dance styles, while the rumba clave is associated with folkloric rhythms. The clave rhythm is a two-measure pattern with three notes in one measure and two notes in the other measure. Therefore, one may start the pattern as a 3/2 (forward clave) or 2/3 (reverse clave.) The melody is the determining factor as to which clave pattern is played. “Muchacha Cha” has a 2/3 Son clave pattern and, as is customary, basically continues the same way from beginning to end. However, in many contemporary compositions, we find that composers/arrangers have interchanged the patterns within the same composition.
The following example shows the basic 3/2 and 2/3 Son two-measure patterns:
BASIC CLAVE PATTERN
This clave concept is the same throughout all of the other titles in Latin Philharmonic. All parts in the rhythm section should be practiced individually before putting it all together. Start with the hand percussion instruments first, then, add the other instruments one at a time. Aim for a cohesive interrelated sound in the section. The conga drum part will be the most challenging as it requires basic hand position and techniques. Practicing slowly is key to developing the correct hand technique. Should a student not be ready to play the written pattern, then, have the student play the open tones (black head notes) only. The students who play the hand percussion instruments could do a little research on the instrument they play. There are many good videos on YouTube that will show exactly the correct playing position and sound for each instrument. The complete audio track and accompaniment track included on the CD will be most helpful. It is ideal to use authentic percussion instruments. The drumset part is made available for support only although recently many Latin bands are using drumset also. This same process can be employed when learning the other tunes in the book.
The last step is to add the strings to the rhythm section. Use the same strategies to teach the rhythm patterns to the strings, particularly in the bass and accompaniment parts.
Here’s how to use the book:
Each piece in Latin Philharmonic repeats four times and includes the following parts: melody, accompaniment, bass, solo 1, solo 2, piano, guitar, hand percussion 1–4, and drumset (Optional). Each part can be assigned to different groups of players or soloists. The first and last time through, all parts except the solos should be played. The second and third time through, the solos are played by an individual or group while the rest of the ensemble plays the accompaniment or bass, as appropriate. String students can play the hand percussion or a drumset player can use the optional drumset part in the rhythm book. There are two tracks for each piece on the CD. The first track is a complete track, and the second track is an accompaniment track to be used in rehearsal or performance in place of the rhythm section.
Ultimately, as an added value, Latin Philharmonic is a bilingual publication written in English and Spanish, which provide the classroom and studio teacher another valuable tool for effective teaching of non-English speaking students.